In this study, the performance of basalt pellet–reinforced cementitious composites (BPRCC) was evaluated after exposure to harsh conditions. The exposure consisted of consecutive 300 freeze–thaw cycles followed by 75 wet–dry cycles simulating successive winter and summer seasons. The mixtures, incorporated general-use cement, slag, and nanosilica, and reinforced with either the recently developed basalt fiber pellets (BP)—basalt fiber strands coated by a polymeric resin—or steel fibers. The resilience of composites was assessed by internal damage, residual compressive and flexural strengths, as well as their compatibility with base/parent concrete, when used in a layered system with normal concrete. The presence of BP at a dosage of 4.5% or 6.9% in the nanomodified cementitious composites effectively discounted the rate of deterioration, resulting in lower reductions in stiffness, compressive and flexural capacities, as well as toughness after the exposure to aggravated environmental conditions. Hence, such composite may present a promising option for construction of exposed infrastructural elements.